The Use of Phosphate Materials as Ameliorants for Acid Mine Drainage. Volume 1 – The Use of Rock Phosphate (Apatite) for the Ameliorization of Acid Mine Drainage from the Mining of Coal
Acid mine drainage from the high sulfur coal mining industry in West Virginia, western Pennsylvania, Ohio, western Kentucky and Illinois is the primary environmental problem facing this industry. Mine acid drainage has adversely affected streams and surface revegetation of abandoned mined lands.
The effectiveness of phosphatic material in ameliorating the acidity of coal mine waste is investigated in bench-scale and small field experiments. It is concluded that apatite is an effective ameliorant for acid generated from weathering of iron disulfide minerals when used at an addition schedule of 4-5% by weight and particle size less than 18 mesh. Additionally, phosphatic clays enriched with -325 mesh apatite were found to be an extremely effective acid ameliorant.
FIPR Publication No. 02-050-074
The Use of Phosphate Materials as Ameliorants for Acid Mine Drainage. Volume 2 – Use of Phosphate Clay in Revegetation of Minesoils: A Greenhouse Study. West Virginia University. February, 1989.