State-of-the-Art of Phosphatic Clay Dewatering and Disposal Techniques. Volume 1 – A Review of Phosphatic Clay Dewatering Research
This Bureau of Mines study surveys the current state of technology and the various research efforts that have been undertaken to dewater the dilute phosphatic clays generated in the production of phosphate rock. The research described includes early dewatering experiments, fundamental studies of clays and of flocculation, and minor dewatering techniques such as freeze-thaw methods, the ANDCO process, moving screens, sand wick, crust development, and overburden pumping. Some methods that are currently being evaluated are described. They include the Estech sand-clay mix process using the Enviro-Clear thickener, sand-clay sandwiching, dredge mix, dredge process, and the sand-spray process. Developing technology for dewatering phosphatic clays also is described, including the Bureau of Mines rotary trommel method and the Gardinier process.
FIPR Publication No. 02-017-022
State-of-the-Art of Phosphatic Clay Dewatering and Disposal Techniques. Volume 2 – A Technical Evaluation of Conventional Versus Developing Processes of Phosphatic Clay Disposal. Jerry T. McLendon, et al., U. S. Bureau of Mines. September, 1983.