The 14th Annual Regional Phosphate Conference


Looking Back


Going Forward

October 21-22, 1999
The Lakeland Center
Lakeland, Florida


Sponsored By




Conference Chairman: Vance Gandy, Svedala - Polk Equipment Co.

General Session Chairman: G. Michael Lloyd, Jr., Florida Institute of Phosphate Research

Technical Session Chair: Rosemarie Garcia, Cargill Fertilizer, Inc.

Environmental: James Sampson, CF Industries, Inc.

Chemical Processing: Marten Walters, KEMWorks Technology, Inc.

Mining and Mineral Processing: Mike James, IMC-Agrico Company

Reclamation: David Evans, Water and Air Research, Inc.

Geology: Joyce Bode, Cargill Fertilizer, Inc.

Interactive/Mixed Topics: Jay Allen, RSS Field Services, Inc.

Arrangements: Deborah Ray, Custom Chemicals Corporation

Registration: Marie Wilmot, Florida Institute of Phosphate Research

Exhibits: Jeff Beriswill, Ardaman and Associates, Inc.

Terri Coffman, Ardaman and Associates, Inc.

Attendance : William Wyllie, Florida Institute of Phosphate Research

Finance: Jeff Beriswill, Ardaman and Associates, Inc.

Publicity: Mary Ellen Murphy, Florida Institute of Phosphate Research

Past Conference Chair: Joyce Bode, Cargill Fertilizer, Inc.

SME Representative: John Powers, GIW industries, Inc.

AIPG Representative: John Walter, Agrifos, LLC

AIChE Representative: Marten Walters, KEMWorks Technology, Inc.

FIPR Representative: Gordon Nifong, Florida Institute of Phosphate Research

Audio-Visual Coordinator: Jon Harris, Florida Institute of Phosphate Research

Thursday, October 21, 1999

9:00 - 9:30 Registration

9:30 - 11:30 GENERAL SESSION

Chairman: G. Michael Lloyd, Jr. - Florida Institute of Phosphate Research



Henry Lamb - Early Mining & Geography

Henry Lamb is a consulting geologist who is fascinated with and has always followed phosphate history.

David Leyshon - Early Chemical Processing and Phosphoric Acid Production

This is a first-hand account from a man who worked with the original developer of the phosphoric acid industry and built the first modern phosphoric acid plant.

Loyal Frisbie - Local Economics

Loyal Frisbie is a longtime publisher of the Polk County Democrat and chronicler of local history.

Wallace W. Prophet, Ph.D. - Old Company Towns

Dr. Prophet grew up in the company village of Coronet and has published a book on company towns: Coronet: Life in the Backsquare: A Personal Reminiscence.

Raymond L. Driver - Mulberry

Raymond Driver will tell us about Mulberry as it was in the early days of phosphate mining when it was the metropolis for surrounding company towns. He grew up in Mulberry during its phosphate heyday and has written a book about the area history, Bone Valley "Comes to Life".

11:30 - 12:00 Break - Opportunity to Visit Vendor Booths and Displays

12:00 - 1:30 Lunch


Regis Stana
"20/20 Vision"


Chairperson: Rosemarie Garcia, Cargill Fertilizer, Inc.

Thursday, October 21, 1999

1:30 - 5:00 Environmental
Chemical Processing
5:00 - 7:00 Social Hour

Friday, October 22, 1999

8:00 - 9:00 Opportunity to Visit Booths and Displays
9:00 - 12:00 Mining / Mineral Processing
12:00 - 1:30 Lunch
1:30 - 4:00 Geology
Interactive Session
4:00 Door Prize Drawing

October 21, 1999



Thursday, October 21, 1999

Session Chair: James Sampson - CF Industries, Inc.

1:30 PM TMDLs: More Protection or More Process?

Panel Discussion:

Craig Kovach - CF Industries, Inc., Moderator
Daryll Joyner - FDEP
Gail Mitchell - USEPA
Dick Eckenrod - Tampa Bay Estuary Program
Frank Matthews - Hopping, Green, Sams and Smith
Greg Williams - IMC-Agrico Company

A moderated panel discussion geared to audience participation. Experts from EPA, DEP, Tampa Estuary Program, the legal profession and the phosphate industry will answer questions and offer their views on the whys and hows of total maximum daily loads. Expect some lively discussion as the panelists offer their views on whether the TMDL program will result in more protection or more process.

3:00 PM Break

3:15 PM Comprehensive Watershed Management and Assessment in the Southwest Florida Water Management District: The Hillsborough River Watershed Experience

Craig Dye - Southwest Florida Water Management District
Mikel E. Renner - Southwest Florida Water Management District

In 1994 the Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) initiated a Comprehensive Watershed Management (CWM) program that employs a watershed-wide approach to surface water management. Staff from a variety of disciplines make up "watershed teams" that have been assigned to the eleven primary watersheds within SWFWMD. These teams are charged with (1) identifying and prioritizing surface water issues relating to water quality, flooding, water supply and natural systems; (2) developing remedial or protective actions to address surface water issues; and (3) implementing and monitoring those actions. The Hillsborough River watershed was chosen as the pilot project since all types of surface waters (rivers, lakes, estuaries, wetlands) and land uses (urban, agricultural, industrial, recreational) were represented. The interaction of these factors has created a variety of potential environmental issues identified by the 'watershed team'. Developing and implementing remedial plans has been a formidable and lengthy process including the involvement of numerous stakeholders to achieve consensus. Clearly without the "buy in" from these stakeholders, any lasting solutions are unlikely. The development of this process is the first step in a long-term change in the way SWFWMD will manage critical regional water resources in the future.

3:45 PM e-Permitting

Richard Walker – Post, Buckley, Schuh and Jernigan, Inc.

This presentation will cover issues concerning the state of the art in e-Permitting. Will industries in Florida ever be able to submit, review, issue, and monitor permits electronically? How close are we now? What's being done by DEP and the WMD's? Existing web sites for forms and permit review status will be reviewed. Legal issues like electronic signatures and when does it become a public document will be discussed. Technology vs. social change - can we eliminate the print button? Why do we have electronic permit tracking on both sides with paper in the middle?

4:15 PM Odor Evaluation and Alternative Control Measures for a Phosphoric Acid Plant

William Zegel - Water and Air Research, Inc.
David Jellerson - Cargill Fertilizer, Inc.
Melody Russo Foley - Cargill Fertilizer, Inc.

The Cargill Riverview plant produces ammonium phosphate fertilizers from phosphate pebble and concentrate, sulfuric acid, and ammonia. The plant also produces most of its sulfuric acid from elemental sulfur, air and water. Citizen odor complaints led to an evaluation of the odor environment, identification of the ultimate sources of odors, and developing alternative odor control measures for the firm.

The study had three components: determining the nature and source of the odor of community concern, seeking the source of odor within the processes of the Riverview Plant, and performing confirmatory laboratory tests. It was concluded that the primary source of the odor complaints was reduced sulfur compounds. Most of these sulfur compounds appeared to be emitted by the phosphoric acid process vents and hot water from the phosphoric acid process (process water).

Alternative control methods were investigated. The use of hydrogen peroxide in the process water was tested at full scale, with results documented using an informal odor panel of community volunteers. The source was identified as natural pyritic sulfur in the pebble and concentrate.


Thursday, October 21, 1999

Session Chair: Marten Walters, KEMWorks Technology, Inc.

1:30 PM Paste Thickener Technology

Chad McCleary - Baker Hughes

Highly concentrated slurry paste have been used in chemical and minerals processing for a number of years. Typically thickening and filtration were required. Advances in thickening technology has proven beneficial to CCD washing and stacking of Byer process red mud and underground tails deposition. This technology has potential to benefit other processes including PA production.

2:00 PM Hemihydrate Technology for the Next Millennium is Now a Reality

Kevin Wardle & Kees Van Ede - Hydro Agri

Two Indian companies have recently established phosphoric acid plants based on Hydro technology. One utilizes the single stage HH process and is located in Jordan; the other uses the two stage HDH process and is in India at Tuticorin. In addition a worldscale HH phosphoric acid plant is being commissioned in Australia.

These events, together with the activities of some companies in Florida who are testing and studying the HH process to make DAP-grade phosphoric acid from rocks which would otherwise be abandoned as "unusable," are significant steps in the progress of hemihydrate technology.

Information about these plants will be given with focus on environmental protection, energy optimisation and techno-economy. The paper will also discuss the latest developments in P2O5 technology, and results of tests with Florida rock.

2:30 PM Analysis and Comparison of the Dihydrate and Hemihydrate Processes through Process Modeling

Paul M. Mathias - Aspen Technology, Inc.

The Aspen Plus(TM) model of the phosphoric acid process has progressed to the point where it is being used to improve the design and operation of production plants. This presentation will describe the key features of the model and will highlight the benefits. In particular, we will use the process model to compare and contrast the dihydrate and hemihydrate processes.


3:30 PM Rubber Linings as Corrosion Protection Materials in Installations for the Manufacture of Phosphoric Acid Products

Juergen Fenner - Keramchemie GmbH

More than 90% of the industrial phosphoric acid produced worldwide is by processes using sulphuric acid to attack phosphate rock. Because of the aggressive chemicals, corrosion and erosion are an overall menace in phosphoric acid plants. Corrosion protection is necessary and the choice of the right corrosion protection material proved to be essential to plant reliability.

Rubber is the most extensively used protective lining. In several plant parts an additional brick lining, usually made of carbon bricks, is required due to the presence of hydrofluoric acid.

The paper will give an brief overview of the rubber lining materials used in phosphoric acid plants, their production and application possibilities.

4:00 PM The Industrial Desktop … an Update in the Chemical Industry

Robert J. Eisele - OSI Software, Inc.

The "Industrial Desktop," as originally described by J. Patrick Kennedy, Ph.D. and President, OSI Software, Inc. (Chemical Engineering, January 1996), has continued to evolve. This paper discusses how internet technology is transforming the industrial desktop and providing intranet solutions for continuous and batch chemical manufacturers.

4:30 PM Fifty Years of Phosphate Processing Technology

John Sinden - JEA Tech/Prayon
Paul Smith - Rupel Technologies

IFA have indexed all of the papers presented at the ISMA/IFA Technical Conferences and this can be accessed at The authors review fifty years of phosphate processing technology focusing on phosphates, phosphoric acid, superphosphates and granulation.

October 22, 1999




Session Chair: Mike James, IMC-Agrico Company

9:00 AM Water and Electrical Cost Reduction Opportunities with Seal Water Used in Slurry Pumps

Randy Dorsey - Power & Pumps, Inc.
Win Leadingham - Power & Pumps, Inc.

The mining and beneficiation processes used by the phosphate industry to produce phosphate ore include the use of large slurry pumps in both the mining and beneficiation areas. Depending on their purpose and location, these pumps can range in size from several hundred to over 20,000 GPM driven by electric motors up to 2000 HP.

As part of maintaining proper pump performance, seal water is provided at the water box of each pump to cool the packing and prevent overheating of various power transmission components. A field pump requires 100 GPM and a plant pump 50-100 GPM, depending on purpose and location. As a result one field pump can consume over 20 million gallons in one year.

We propose to offer technology that eliminates 75% to 100% of the seal water required by these pumps. Depending on location and purpose, one of the two technologies apply. To oversimplify, on field pumps, changing to a minimum dilution style water box could eliminate 75% plus of the seal water presently used. For plant pumps, changing to a mechanical seal could eliminate 100% of the seal water required.

An additional benefit for pumps utilizing mechanical seals is a significant reduction in the amount of electricity required to run the pumps. Based on actual data this reduction can range from 10–30%.

9:30 AM Slurry Pumps and the Total Cost of Ownership

Graeme Addie - GIW Industries, Inc.

It is normal when first considering processing slurry to evaluate the initial cost of pumps and sometimes the efficiency in respect of the operating cost.

Later, when they are installed and operating it is often that great scrutiny is placed on the wear life and cost of the wetted parts and in some cases, the cost of refurbishing the mechanical end.

Rarely does either the supplier or customer consider the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) of the pump in the intended application.

The total cost of ownership of a slurry pump comprises the cost of capital to buy it in the first place, the electrical (or other) power operating cost, the cost of replacement parts over time and the cost of downtime and/or of refurbishment.

The author of this paper looks at the total cost of ownership of different applications introducing also how different pump operation can affect the total operating cost of the transport system itself.

10:00 AM New Technology Magnetic Flowmeter with Optional Mass Flow Meaurement.

Robert H. Batey, M. Sc. - Advanced Flow Technology Co.

A major advance in magnetic flow sensing has been accomplished in 3 ways.

Firstly, a magmeter has been developed where a liner is an option, not a necessity. The flowtube comprises typically 2 sensors which encapsulate flow sensing electrodes and coils in stiff setting insulation. The electrodes are flush with the flowtube internal diameter. Since the sensors are as a complete magmeter function, no liner is necessary. However, should a liner be required for use with mining slurries, this can be supplied. Any damage to the liner does not affect performance, as it would with an ordinary magmeter. Uniquely, the sensor may be removed if ever damaged.

A second unique feature is in the signal-to-media noise ratio being typically 3 times better than continuous AC technology and 30-50 times higher then pulsed DC magmeters. This allows mining slurries and similar to be measured with the same high accuracy as water. The reason is due primarily to a magnetizing current of up to 5A at a frequency of 40 Hz. Such high magnetizing currents result in smaller coils. Drift due to eddy currents and other induced voltage errors is virtually eliminated due to unique algebraic compensation. At the same time power consumption is typically only 6 watts, allowing coil encapsulation.

Thirdly, the use of small coils and sensors, unique in a high accuracy magmeter, allows a low-level gamma ray density sensor to be integrally incorporated onto the magmeter flowtube. The gamma ray levels are so low that no license or specialized user training is required, and density accuracy is not compromised. The gamma ray absorption is exponentially proportional to density, which is computed with the magmeter volumetric signal to provide a major breakthrough in mass flow measurement.

10:20 AM Break

10:30 AM Flotation Process for Carbonate Removal

Glenn A. Gruber - Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc.
G. Michael Lloyd, Jr. - Florida Institute of Phosphate Research

Phosphate rock is ground to about 5% +35 mesh for reacting in the dehydrate process. This grinding liberates phosphate from gangue minerals. The Florida Institute of Phosphate Research sponsored Jacobs' testing and preliminary evaluation of removing carbonate minerals from ground reactor feed by flotation. Capital and operating costs are presented for the most effective of the three processes tested.

11:00 AM The Use of Additives for the Control of Clays in Phosphate Mining and Beneficiation

David Krofchak - Ateba Mines, Inc.
F. L. (Tino) Prado, P. E. - Prado & Associates, Inc.

The mining and beneficiation of central Florida's phosphate involves the removal and disposal of large quantities of clay. Florida's montmorillonitic clays present handling and disposal problems which have long represented a headache for the industry. First, matrix is pumped from the mine to the mineral reclamation (beneficiation) plant. Then, the clay must be removed from the matrix as one of the initial steps in the beneficiation process. After removal, the clay must be disposed of in settling ponds with a rather long settling time. The amount of research conducted both privately and by FIPR reflects the magnitude of the problem.

Ateba Mines Ltd. has identified an alkaline phosphate salt which might be helpful in the prevention of the formation of clay balls. Furthermore, the same material may aid in settling of the clays. Testing is currently underway to determine the extent of the effectiveness of the material. This paper will present the results to date and will project the future potential of the material.

11:30 AM Reducing Fuel Oil Usage for Phosphate Flotation

Patrick Zhang - Florida Institute of Phosphate Research
Robert Snow - Florida Institute of Phosphate Research

Long-chain fatty acids used for commercial flotation applications go through an ionization process between pH 4 and 10. At pH around 8.0 there is an ion molecular complex (RCOOH-RCOO-) present in 1:1 proportion. In this pH range these surfactants have distinct dual functionality as collector and frother. This phenomenon causes excessive foaming in phosphate flotation. Current practice is to add a large quantity of fuel oil.

Another role of fuel oil is to increase the resulting contact angle of a mineral against air bubbles substantially over the value in its absence, thereby accelerating kinetics and making possible the flotation of larger particles, both as a result of stronger adhesion of individual particles to bubbles and, equally, of the flotation of air/mineral/oil aggregates as well as individual particles.

The Florida phosphate industry consumes hundreds of millions of pounds of fuel oil per year for phosphate flotation. It is of significant environmental and economic benefit to reduce the usage of fuel oil. This paper presents laboratory testing results from both a FIPR in-house program and a contractual project through the University of Utah. Both projects demonstrated the potential to reduce fuel oil consumption significantly, while either improving flotation recovery or reducing overall reagent costs.


Friday, October 22, 1999

Session Chair: David L. Evans - Water and Air Research, Inc.

9:00 AM A Historical Perspective on Phosphate Mine Reclamation in Central Florida

Joseph Bakker - FDEP - Bureau of Mine Reclamation

While phosphate mining in central Florida can be traced to the beginning of this century, formal land reclamation was only initiated in the 1970's. This presentation will give a historical perspective on phosphate mined land reclamation in central Florida. The evolution of reclamation rules, technology, and stakeholder outlook will be analyzed. Divergent and convergent patterns will be identified and discussed with a view to improving rules, technology, and stakeholder outlook in the next millennium.

9:30 AM Wetland Creation: Hard Knock School

Phong Vo - U.S. Agri-Chemicals Corporation

The process of wetland creation in phosphate mining as required by the mandatory reclamation rules is over two-and-a-half decades old. It is inevitable for wetland creation practitioners to have experienced the growing pain of this art over the last 24 years. The successes, failures, and learning associated with this art certainly would qualify this process as the school of hard knocks.

There are many internal and external contributing factors that can cause a wetland creation project to fail or to succeed. This paper will discuss in detail the successes and failure of a large-scale wetland creation project for a mine reclamation program from the design phase through the completion phase. The author will also reveal the site-specific methods of dealing with external and internal influence factors that can affect the outcome of the wetland creation project. Cooperative efforts among the design team, contractors, company management, and the regulatory agency contributed a great deal to the success of this project.

As of today, the project has been recognized by the regulatory agency (FDEP/Bureau of Mine Reclamation) as one of the most successful wetland creation projects in the mining industry in Florida.

10:00 AM Wetland Mitigation Success Criteria and Phosphate Mining - Past, Present and Future

Christine M. Keenan - FDEP Bureau of Mine Reclamation

Mitigation for impacts to wetlands, including impacts associated with mining activities, has been required by the State of Florida since 1984. The criteria used to evaluate the success of mitigation projects have been evolving since that time. The FDEP Bureau of Mine Reclamation has been responsible for issuing permits for mining-related wetland impacts since 1994, and has been evaluating existing and alternative methods for evaluating mitigation success. This presentation will include an overview of the various approaches and current trends involved with the evaluation of mitigation projects, followed by a discussion of the pros and cons of some of these approaches from the perspective of regulatory personnel associated with the phosphate mining industry. Standard criteria utilized for projects in central Florida, recent modifications and the future of mitigation success criteria in relation to current trends will also be discussed.

10:30 AM Use of Aquatic Fauna in Evaluating Created Wetlands in Central Florida

David L. Evans, Ph.D. - Water and Air Research, Inc.

Biological criteria used for determining mitigation wetland permit compliance generally include vegetation community characteristics such as plant density, percent cover, and diversity. Animal communities are given little or no emphasis in determining permit compliance, perhaps in part based on the hypothesis that animal populations will become established where physical habitat and food resources are provided by plant communities under a proper hydrological regime. Do constructed wetlands that meet vegetation-related standards support adequate animal communities? Conversely, do constructed wetlands that fail vegetation permit criteria also fail to support fauna of sufficient abundance and diversity?

Biological, soil, and water quality data collected from 18 natural and constructed central Florida marshes during a 3-year investigation funded by the Florida Institute of Phosphate Research were evaluated to address these questions. Benthic macroinvertebrate data collected from wetlands with a wide range of vegetation communities were evaluated and compared. The efficacy of using other faunal communities as bioindicators of mitigation success was also tested.

10:50 AM BREAK

11:00 AM Past and Present: Case Study of the Southeast Hillsborough County, FL Landfill

Larry E. Ruiz, SCS Engineers
Sheila Carpenter-van Dijk - SCS Engineers

This presentation will describe the design innovations of the Southeast County Landfill and how the Hillsborough County Solid Waste Management Department was able to successfully utilize phosphate-mined lands that otherwise were unusable. The landfill site was built in 1984 on portions of the Lonesome Mine that was in operation from 1945 through 1967. The area being used for landfill operations was previously the settling basin used in the mining operation to dispose of clay washed from the phosphate ore. In this area, the phosphatic clay slimes are 4 to 18 feet in thickness.

The Southeast County facility located in Picnic, Florida, currently includes a 162-acre Class I landfill, a waste tire processing facility, and a leachate treatment facility. The landfill is constructed in the old mine's settling basin and uses the clay slimes as the landfill bottom liner. This unique bottom liner configuration requires on-going construction innovations to ensure compliance with changing regulatory requirements. It provided for a unique and challenging engineering problem due to the waste layer loads produced on the phosphatic clay liner that has low shear strength.

11:30 AM Mining in the Payne Creek Watershed: A Case Study of a Major Tributary to the Peace River

John H. Kiefer - CF Industries, Inc.

Four modern phosphate mines encompass greater than 67% of the 121 mi2 Payne Creek watershed. The oldest of these began operating in the watershed during the early 1960s and mining has occurred through the present. Seven NPDES outfalls discharge industrial wastewater from the mines into Payne Creek and some of its tributaries. Information on flows, water quality, and macroinvertebrates in the creek was assessed. Flow data was compared to the extent of mining and reclamation through time and to rainfall. Water quality and macroinvertebrates were compared to similar data from three tributaries to the Peace River with minimal or no mining activities in their watersheds (Horse Creek, Charlie Creek, and Joshua Creek). Reclamation projects of headwater wetlands, ephemeral streams feeding Payne Creek, and uplands were assessed for factors potentially affecting the creek such as runoff response, habitat quality, and water quality. The measures taken in the watershed to maintain the hydrology, water quality, and biological integrity of Payne Creek will be discussed.


Friday, October 22, 1999

Session Chair: Joyce Bode - Cargill Fertilizer, Inc.

1:30 PM The New State of Florida Geologic Map: Introduction of the Draft Digital Map

Thomas M. Scott - Florida Geological Survey

The interpretation of Florida's near-surface geologic framework has undergone revisions since the last geological map of Florida published by the Florida Geological Survey (FGS) (Vernon and Puri, 1964, scale 1:2,000,000). Brooks (1982) independently published an interpretation of the state's geology at a scale of 1:500,000. During the last ten years, the FGS has been preparing a revised version of the state geologic map incorporating these new concepts. The draft map (scale 1:750,000), text and cross sections are presented for discussion and debate.

The near-surface geology of Florida was compiled from field work, interpretation of core borings and well cuttings, and in-house data. Each county was initially mapped utilizing 1:24,000 scale topographic maps. This data was transferred to Department of Transportation (DOT) county maps. Digital files were created from the DOT county maps utilizing AutoCAD and published in the Florida Geological Survey's Open File Map Series. Subsequently, the individual county files were merged to create a master file for the State using ARC/INFO. The state coverage was brought into ARC/VIEW for editing purposes. Publication of the statewide map will be at a scale of 1:750,000.

2:00 PM Ecosystem Management Team Permitting Review Process for the Hardee County Mine in Florida

U. K. Custred - Farmland Hydro, L.P.

Ecosystem Team Permitting is a voluntary, new approach to the review of large-scale projects requiring state and regional permits in Florida. Its two central components are "Net Ecosystem Benefit" and "Coordinated and Concurrent Review" of applications.

"Net Ecosystem Benefit" means that review under this process must produce a result more favorable to the ecosystem than conventional DRI reviews. In order to obtain the "Coordinated and Concurrent Review," the applicant must show that such a benefit is likely before the agencies and jurisdictions agree to enter into the process.

The anticipated result for the applicant is a significantly shorter and more efficient review process. The anticipated benefit for reviewing agencies and jurisdictions is a more accurate, efficient and innovative review procedure. The anticipated benefit for Florida is the best possible outcome for the environment.

2:20 PM Aquifer Storage and Recovery in the Southwest Florida Water Management District

Donald L. Ellison, Southwest Florida Water Management District

Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) is a rapidly expanding technology being used to store excess water during the wet season until the dry season when it is difficult to meet demands. In 1984 the Southwest Florida Water Management District co-funded the Lake Manatee potable water ASR project, which was the first ASR project in the State of Florida. Since the successful completion of this project, the implementation of ASR in the District has grown to more than 16 projects in various stages of development. The majority of these projects are co-funded by the District as part of its effort to develop alternative sources for water supply. An overview of the history of ASR projects within the District will be provided along with information pertaining to problems and successes encountered over the years. The presentation will include an introduction to the technical and permitting issues associated with the storage and recovery of potable, reclaimed, and high-quality surface water.


3:00 PM Development of the Farim Phosphate Project, Guinea Bissau, West Africa

John Hiner, Champion Resources

The Farim Phosphate Project is located in north central Guinea Bissau. In the 1980's, BRGM drilled 5200 meters in 102 diamond drill holes to define a potentially mineable reserve of 105 million tonnes of phosphate rock grading 29.8% P2O5. Champion acquired the project in 1997, and engaged in renewed studies of the project to determine its economic potential in today's marketplace. After a positive fatal flaw analysis and initial market evaluation, Champion drilled 600 meters of core to obtain more rock for beneficiation studies and validate the BRGM work, and to test for potential to expand the mineable tonnage. Drill results and chemical analyses were positive, and Champion is initiating feasibility studies developing infrastructure for this project.

3:30 PM Geology of the North Carolina Phosphate Deposits

Ronald A. Crowson - O'Brien & Gere Engineers

In keeping with the theme of this conference, we look back to review our understanding of the onshore and offshore phosphate deposits in North Carolina. From a geologic sense, these deposits fall neatly into a moderately complex geologic model developed through years of cooperative research by academia and mining companies. The geologic model recognizes the importance of the interaction of a strong western boundary current (equivalent to today's "Gulf Stream Current") with the Cenozoic North Carolina shoreline. This interaction between a strong boundary current and protuberances in the continental shelf set up geologic conditions characterized by nutrient-rich upwelling zones which resulted in the development of phosphate-rich sediments. Furthermore, this continued interaction between the strong tropical boundary current and the continental shelf through periodic sea level changes resulted in the reworking and, possibly, the concentration of so-called "high-grade" mineral resources on and offshore of present day North Carolina.


Friday, October 22, 1999

Session Chair: Jay Allen - RSS Field Services, Inc.

1:30 PM Wildflowers for People and Nature

William Moriaty - Florida Department of Transportation District Seven

Wildflowers play both aesthetic and functional roles in a broad range of Florida environments. Many hardy and colorful species are native to Florida. This rich floral diversity creates the opportunity to use wildflowers to enhance both mitigation and maintained habitats to the benefit of both nature and mankind. Insights and lessons learned in FDOT's efforts to establish wildflowers in rights-of-way are the focus of this presentation.

2:15 PM Ecological Burns as a Habitat Management Tool

Peter Rossi - Hillsborough Community College - Environmental Programs Department

Prior to the development of effective control strategies, fire played a major role in both the establishment and maintenance of Florida's unique mix of ecosystems. This presentation focuses on the use of controlled burning as an effective management tool for the maintenance of fire dependent ecosystems in central Florida.


3:10 PM Post-Mining Uses of Phosphate Lands - Issues for Buyers and Sellers

Roger Sims, Esq. - Holland & Knight LLP

Phosphate mined lands are unique for reasons directly related to their mining history. Mining, mining support, mineral processing and reclamation land use activities all contribute to the final soil composition and range of potential post-mining uses. It is important that both sellers and buyers of phosphate mined lands be knowledgeable in terms of how to best evaluate their respective interests, challenges and opportunities. These and related issues are the focus of this presentation.

3:30 PM Lead Immobilization in Contaminated Soils Using P Amendments

Lena Q. Ma - University of Florida, Soil & Water Science Dept.
Satya Singh - University of Florida, Soil & Water Science Dept.
Willie Harris - University of Florida, Soil & Water Science Dept.

Lead contamination is a major environmental problem nationwide. Children are particularly susceptible to the toxic effects of lead. For these reasons the clean-up of thousands of contaminated sites is a current top priority at the USEPA. Phosphate amendments can be used to tie up lead in contaminated soils and represent an efficient and cost- effective alternative treatment at many sites. The use of phosphate for these purposes constitutes a potentially substantial source of new product rock demand and a major potential benefit for both owners and residents living on or near contaminated sites. These and related matters are the subject of this presentation.

Hero of the Industry Awards

1998 13th Lee Thurner Leonard Burnett Regis Stana
1997 12th Tom Leto Jon Courtney William Cook
1996 11th Ron Wiegel Eric Norman Don Clark
1995 10th Maywood Chesson Walter Schmidt Frank Arroyo, Sr.
1994 9th Clint Hollingsworth Lonnie Engel Gerald Rubin
1993 8th Selwyn Presnell Don Crissinger Gordon Palm
1992 7th Fred Myers Tom Scott Edward Newburg
1991 6th Dan Lynch Rick Powers Les Bromwell
1990 5th Richard Hunter Richard Fountain Jim Williams
1989 4th A. L. Holmes Tom Patterson Don Chamberlain
1988 3rd Don Morrow John Paugh Arthur Hansen
1987 2nd Colin Campbell James Cathcart Ray Garcia
1986 1st Dave Raden
General Chairman

*AIME - 1986-1995


Lakeland Terrace Hotel - $99.00
329 East Main Street - (863) 688-0800
AmeriSuites - $89.00
at Lakeland Center - (863) 413-1122
Four Points Hotel by ITT Sheraton - $88.00
4141 South Florida Avenue - (863) 647-3000
Holiday Inn South - $74.00
3405 South Florida Avenue - (863) 646-5731
Ramada Inn - $55.00
3260 US Highway 98 North - (863) 688-8080
Mention Regional Phosphate Conference to receive special rates.


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